3. are a part of reproductive system of male cockroach and are associated with conglobate gland. The female reproductive system is made up of internal and external organs that function to produce haploid female gametes called eggs, secrete female sex hormones (such as estrogen), and carry and give birth to a fetus. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IN INSECTS Sexual dimorphism is noticed in cockroach In male cockroach, at the posterior end of the abdomen there is a pair of short segmented anal cerci and unsegmented anal styli. The left gland is larger and more opaque than the right one. It is situated above the oesophagus almost between the bases of the antennae. The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus, where the uterine lining has thickened in response to the normal hormones of the reproductive cycle. Malpighian tubules are the fine, long, unbranched, yellowish and blind tubules attached to the alimentary canal at the extreme anterior end of the hindgut. 5. 2. are a part of reproductive system of female cockroach and are associated with utricular gland . Each ovary consists of eight faintly yellowish ovarioles. Sub-oesophageal ganglion is present below the oesophagus, posterior to the brain. In mating, first the male gets under female, extends his left hooked phallomere into the female genital chamber, clasping a small sclerite in front of ovipositor and then moves from beneath her. These glands which are situated just behind the ovaries open into the genital pouch by two separate openings, lying close together, a little behind and above the spermathecal opening. The apices of these muscles are attached to the terga and their broad bases to the dorsal diaphragm. The major sense organs of cockroach are antenneae, eyes, maxillary palps, labial palps, anal cerci etc. The nerve cords are solid. The crop leads into a small, thick-walled, muscular, pear shaped gizzard or proventriculus. The spermathecae help in the storage of sperms received during copulation from the male. Feature of cockroach 3. The sperms are stored in the seminal vesicles and are glued together in the form of bundles called spermatophores which are discharged during copulation. Seventy percent of females take 9 molting cycles to get to the adult stage and that represents (8 + 8 + 8.5 + 9 + 9.5 + 10 + 12 + 16 + 23) = 104 days. They are dropped or glued to a suitable surface, usually in a crack or crevice of high relative humidity near a food source. 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If you wanted to slow it down you could lower the temp to 25 C and you would double all the times (approximately). Morphology- Head , Thorax , Abdomen 4. They are protandrous, there is no self-fertilization. Thus, the supra-oesophageal ganglion, circum-oesophageal connectives and the sub-oesophageal ganglion together constitute the nerve ring around the oesophagus in the head capsule. From the sub-oesophageal ganglion arises a double ventral nerve cord which runs through the thorax and abdomen below the alimentary canal upto the posterior end of the body. Reproductive System; Cockroaches are dioecious animals, i.e. The genital pouch in male cockroach is situated at the hind end of the abdomen bounded dorsally by the terga of 9th and 10th segments and ventrally by the sternum of 9th segment. Reproductive System. It includes the mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, crop and gizzard. When the heart and aorta contract peristaltically from behind forwards the blood is driven into head sinus and then into the perivisceral and perineural sinuses. The haemocoel of cockroach contains a network of closed, elastic, branched air tubes called tracheae. The key difference between male and female reproductive system is that the male reproductive system produces sperms while the female reproductive system produces egg cells or the ova. The female reproductive system function and structure of the male reproductive system tend to toss our mind a lot during revision. Male Reproductive System It is located in the posterior part of the abdomen. This reproductive behavior begins with winged males and virgin winged queens leaving the existing nest and swarming to search for a mate from another colony. Older females were less choosy than younger females. There are many species of cockroaches in the wild and are of least economic importance. The newly hatched larva weighs about 2 mg and doubles its weight at each larva-larva molt. Inside the heart the blood flows unidirectional from posterior end to the anterior end of the body. The female cockroach secrets a pheromone or sex attractant which attracts the male cockroach. However, Mastotermitidae termites have multiflagellate sperm with limited … Fig. If the female had continuous food availability it could produce an ootheca every 2-3 days to 30 °C. It produces the female egg cells necessary for reproduction, called the ova or oocytes. Once the sperms migrate into the spermatheca, the spermatophore wall is dropped. The female reproductive system consists of the following: One pair of yellow coloured ovaries are situated in 2nd to 6th segments, on either side of the hindgut embedded in fat bodies. These are a pair of unequal sized structures where in the right spermatheca is narrow and tubular while left spermatheca is sac like. The sperms which are formed inside the testes are carried through the vasa deferentia and passed to the seminal vesicles. The deposited ootheca contains water sufficient for the eggs to develop without receiving additional water from the substrate. Each ovary consists of 8 blind ovarian tubules or ovarioles inside which the linear series of ova are situated in an acropetal order (oldest at base and youngest at tip). The female deposits the ootheca near a source of food by either simply dropping it or gluing it to a surface with a secretion from her mouth. Difference # Female Cockroach: 1. In female cerci alone are present and styli are absent. COCKROACH The slide contain about- 1. Both now get into end-to-end position. In cockroach there are altogether ten pairs of segmentally arranged spiracles or stigmata of which two pairs are in the thorax and eight pairs in the abdomen. Difference between male and female cockroach 5. The perivisceral sinus contains the alimentary canal along with the whitish mass of tissue called fat body. The egg case is brown when deposited and turns black in a day or two. They are excretory in function. The reproductive system is the human organ system responsible for the production and fertilization of gametes (sperm or eggs) and, in females, the carrying of a fetus. The male reproductive system has a pair of testes that lie on the lateral side in the 4th -6th abdominal segments. The thoracic ganglia give off nerves to the muscles of the legs and wings. The process of copulation lasts for an hour or so, after which the male and female separate. On an average a female cockroach produces 9-10 oothecae during her life time each containing 14-16 eggs arranged in two rows. Female Reproductive System: The female reproductive system of cockroach consists of two large ovaries. Reproductive System. With the help of several ommatidia, a cockroach can receive several images at a time of an object. ⇨ Anatomy of Earthworm,Cockroach & Frog ⇨ Reproductive System of Earthworm; Reproductive System of Earthworm Anatomy of Earthworm,Cockroach & Frog of Class 11. Disclaimer Copyright, Zoology Notes | Exclusive Notes on Zoology for Students, Reproductive System of Grasshopper (With Diagram), Earthworm: Digestive and Reproductive System | Zoology, Frog: Digestive, Respiratory & Reproductive System | Zoology, Essay on Cockroach: Digestive System and Respiratory System, Classification of Connective Tissue | Animal Tissues | Zoology. Furthermore, the formation of sperms occurs in a cold environment, whereas the formation of ova occurs under warm conditions within the ovaries. The contraction of alary muscles results in the enlargement of pericardial sinus so that blood flows into it from the underlying perivisceral sinus. All the eight ovarioles of an ovary unite to form a short and wide lateral oviduct. The conglobate gland also secretes the covering of spermatophore. Hindgut or the proctodaeum is the last part of the alimentary canal. Such an adult female could live perhaps a year longer as an adult. Mesosternum is partly divided and ninth sternum is visible. In young cockroaches these are well developed and functional while in adult ones they are non-functional and greatly reduced. The respiratory system of cockroach consists of ectodermal air tubes or tracheae which communicate with the exterior by spiracles or stigmata. The female reproductive system provides several functions. Female Reproductive System of Cockroach / Grasshopper. In this article we will discuss about:- 1. iii. The vagina is an elastic, muscular canal that can accommodate the penis. The pulsatile heart of cockroach is a long narrow tube with anterior end open and posterior end closed. From the Malpighian tubule so formed uric acid moves into ileum by gentle peristaltic movement. The gizzard contains an anterior armarium, middle pulvillus and posterior stomodeal valve. 5. There are backwardly directed bristles behind the teeth in the pulvillus which act as strainers and allow only fine particles to pass through. The female reproductive system is made up of many parts. The stomodeal valve prevents the passage of food from midgut into the gizzard. The abdominal spiracles are situated one pair in each of the first eight abdominal segments, between the terga and sterna. These parts function together to do many things, such as producing eggs and hormones, maintaining a … Each trachea ends in a large terminal cell called tracheole cell or tracheal end cell from which arise very fine tubes called tracheoles. The wings of female cockroach are smaller and extend up to the tip of the abdomen. They are called the prothoracic, mesothoracic and metathoracic ganglia. In response, the sexually excited male raises its forewing and rapidly flutters its hindwings. It is a large, elongated, club-shaped accessory gland situated below the ejaculatory duct. The tracheae have cuticular lining called intima or taenidia which form spiral or ring like thickening around the tracheae. A typical egg case contains about 14 to 16 eggs. The compound eyes are situated on the dorsal surface of the head. The male reproductive system consists of a pair of testes present in the 4th and 6th segments of the abdomen laterally: The female reproductive system consists of two ovaries in the 2nd and 6th segment of the abdomen. The oesophagus is continued into a thin-walled sac-like dilatable crop. The antennae are relatively larger than that of the males. Both the lateral oviducts unite to form a broad median common oviduct called vagina. Once in the uterus, the fertilized egg can implant into thickened uteri… The supra-oesophageal ganglion and the sub-oesophageal ganglion are connected by a pair of circum-oesophageal connectives or commissures which encircle the oesophagus. The latter lies immediately ventral to the anus, between 9th and 10th sterna. The phallomeres together constitute the phallic organs or gonapophyses which help in copulation. Fertilized eggs become hardened by the secretion of collaterial glands, which hardens to form an ootheca. A pair of ovaries lies laterally in the 2nd and 6th abdominal segment. Female Cockroach: Antennae are shorter than body and third segment longer than second. It is terrestrial, nocturnal, cursorial (fast runner), omnivorous and unspecialized insect. The terminal filaments of all the ovarioles unite and form a common thread. It gives off nerves to the antennae and eyes. They contain a chain of developing ova. There are three pairs of large ganglia in the thorax, one pair in each of the pro, meso and metathoracic segments. During copulation, spermatophore is deposited near the spermathecal pore by gonapophyses of male. The tubules of left collateral glands are opaque white while those of right transparent and colorless. It is in the form of a short narrow tube which is lined internally by endoderm. Present on the ventral surface of the anterior part of ejaculatory duct there is a sac formed of short bulbous tubules, called seminal vesicle. This arrangement very well compensates for the inability of blood to transport oxygen due to the absence of a respiratory pigment. These are a pair of much branched accessory reproductive glands of female. 2. The reproductive organs are similar to those in cockroaches but are more simplified. The secretion of collateral glands helps in the formation of ootheca. The alimentary canal consists of three parts namely: Foregut or the stomodaeum is the first part of the alimentary canal. Male Reproductive System; It consists of a pair of testes one lying on each side in the 4-6th abdominal segments. The two vasa deferentia, one from each testis, run posteriorly downwards and open into the ejaculatory duct through seminal vesicles. Abdomen is generally broad (boat shaped) and seventh sternum divided by a opening of genital pouch. Its narrow duct opens into the genital pouch by the side of male gonopore. Difference between Male and Female Cockroach Cockroaches are found in places where there is a warmth, dampness and plenty of organic food to devour. They lie freely in the haemolymph and are lined by glandular and ciliated epithelium. It is ectodermal in origin and lined by a cuticle. There is an accessory reproductive gland in the 6 th and 7 th abdominal segments that is mushroom shaped. We show that in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea the choosiness of females, defined as the courtship effort females require from males before mating, changed as a function of female age because of age-related changes in the reproductive system. Welcome to NotesOnZoology.com! It is a single, median, wide, glandular and muscular duct which extends backward and opens into the genital pouch through the male genital pore. Each ovariole forms one mature ovum at a time. Altogether 16 eggs descend into the genital chamber. (d) Mushroom Shaped Gland or Utricular Gland: The junction of two vasa deferentia and ejaculatory duct in 6th and 7th abdominal segments is surrounded by an accessory reproductive gland called mushroom shaped gland or utricular gland. This is called mosaic vision. When the alary muscles relax, blood is forced through ostia into the heart. Form of a respiratory pigment a male sperm, this leads to mouth ( preoral cavity the! 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